This achievement standard involves describing properties of atoms, molecules, and ions, and thermochemical principles.
Properties of particles include:
- electron configuration of atoms and ions of the first 36 elements (using s,p,d notation)
- special characteristics of transition metals (variable oxidation state, colour) related to electron configuration. Transition metals will be limited to iron, vanadium, chromium, manganese, copper and zinc
- periodic trends in atomic radius, ionisation energy, and electronegativity, and comparison of atomic and ionic radii
- Lewis structures and shapes (up to six electron pairs about the central atom for molecules and polyatomic ions, including those with multiple bonds)
- polarity of molecules
- attractive forces between atoms, ions, and molecules. These will include ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and intermolecular attractions due to temporary dipoles and permanent dipoles (including hydrogen bonding).
Thermochemical principles include:
- transfer of heat between the system and the surroundings
- calculations involving the use of specific heat capacity
- ΔcH°, ΔfH°, ΔrH°, ΔvapH°, ΔsubH°, and ΔfusH°
- Hess’s Law including application of ΔrH(= ΣΔfH((products) – ΣΔfH((reactants)
- bond enthalpies.