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This achievement standard involves describing properties of atoms, molecules, and ions, and thermochemical principles.

Properties of particles include:

  • electron configuration of atoms and ions of the first 36 elements (using s,p,d notation)
  • special characteristics of transition metals (variable oxidation state, colour) related to electron configuration. Transition metals will be limited to iron, vanadium, chromium, manganese, copper and zinc
  • periodic trends in atomic radius, ionisation energy, and electronegativity, and comparison of atomic and ionic radii
  • Lewis structures and shapes (up to six electron pairs about the central atom for molecules and polyatomic ions, including those with multiple bonds)
  • polarity of molecules
  • attractive forces between atoms, ions, and molecules. These will include ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and intermolecular attractions due to temporary dipoles and permanent dipoles (including hydrogen bonding).

Thermochemical principles include:

  • transfer of heat between the system and the surroundings
  • calculations involving the use of specific heat capacity
  • Δc, Δf, Δr, Δvap, Δsub, and Δfus
  • Hess’s Law including application of ΔrH(= ΣΔfH((products) – ΣΔfH((reactants)
  • bond enthalpies.

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