Key Resources

A compendium of key articles related to the aims of AMHC meant to to be reviewed and savored at several sittings. For convenience, they are laid out in the following three sections:

I._   Adolescent_Mobility
II._ Transport_Demand_Management_(TDM)

III._Sustainable_Transport, Health & Road Safety

I. Adolescent Mobility

1. Cairns S, Okamura K. Costs and choices: the effects of educating young adults about transport prices. Journal of Infrastructure Planning and Management. 2003;60:101-113.

This intervention is the first we found that focuses on educating driving-age high-school youth about the financial costs of car ownership, car use, crashes, and alternative modes of travel. A small sample size, but a big message: This work suggests that the attractiveness of car ownership and car use can be reduced in the age group we are targeting.

2. Davis B, Dutzik T, Baxandall P. Transportation and the New Generation; Why Young People Are Driving Less and What It Means for Transportation Policy. 2012.

An important and comprehensive look into the evidence and growing awareness of  trends of decreased youth car use documented by several recent reports and surveys. The transition to less car intense societies has already begun among young people. The authors conclude: “Policy-makers and the public need to be aware that America’s current transportation policy – dominated by road building – is fundamentally out-of-step with the transportation patterns and expressed preferences of growing numbers of Americans”.

3. Douglas MJ, Watkins SJ, Demont GR, Higgins M. Are cars the new tobacco? Journal of Public Health. 2011;33(2):160-169.

Although not adolescent specific, this paper is important because it makes the tantalising connection between car and tobacco addiction. The author’s suggestion that private cars could be regarded as an archetypal ecological risk like smoking may be seen as some as outlandish, but in 10 years this comparison may be the norm. The article goes on to explain how the addiction of car use affects health and sustainability, and has a great summary table comparing personal and societal dependence (see page 163).

4. Durkin K and Tolmie A.The development of children’s and young people’s attitudes to driving: A critical review of the literature. Road Safety Web Publication No. 18. Department for Transport: London. September, 2010.

The aim of this report, focusing on pre-drivers, is to understand the development of road use skills in children as they move from being a pedestrian and cyclist to being a driver and passenger. While the report (unfortunately) pretty much assumes all children will become car drivers, it nevertheless critically reviews what little literature there is on what influences the transition from child to driver. In that way, it informs, through analogy from the other side of the looking glass, those who think that not everyone wishes to, should, or will make that journey.

5. Fujii S. Communication with non-drivers for promoting long-term pro-environmental travel behaviour. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2007;12:99-102.

This paper by Fujii was the first we found focusing on non-drivers. It is important because Fujii (out of Kyoto, Japan) is one of the only researchers to focus on non-drivers, and the idea of drivers becoming drivers simply because it is a “matter of course”(p 100). In this 2007 paper he notes that “in heavily motorized societies … if people decide to obtain driving licenses in order to conform, they may not be aware of the negative aspects of automobile use” (p 100), a comment that seems ahead of his time.

6. Orsini A. Off ramp: a secondary school vehicle trip reduction program. Vancouver, BC: Urban Transportation Showcase Program;1999.

This paper is important because it is one of the only on-going (since 1999) programs out there that focuses on encouraging active transport for driving-age secondary school students.

7. Sharpe S, Tranter P. The hope for oil crisis: children, oil vulnerability and (in)dependent mobility. Australian Planner. 2010;47(4):284 — 292.

Describes today’s children as those who will feel most the effects of “a life without cheap oil”. This paper is important because it describes how children’s independent mobility (CIM) is being quickly replaced with adult dependent mobility (ADM), which is a “social trap: parents drive their children as a response to the dangers of traffic, thereby contributing to the problem of traffic danger”(p 288). As car addiction is tough to break, the paper goes on to suggest research, policy and planning strategies, although it warns that “those promoting active transport need to harness the pleasure that is currently used to market cars” (p 289).

8. Voas R, Kelley-Baker T. Licensing Teenagers: Nontraffic Risks and Benefits in the Transition to Driving Status. Traffic Injury Prevention. 2008;9(2):89-97.

This review article introduces the concept of “transitional teens” and provides a model to explain the possible risks encountered by this group when they begin to drive or ride with a peer. This paper explores this proposed transitional period to gain a better understand and mitigate the non-traffic risks associated with driving. This paper complements the work of AMHC by focusing on the non-traffic risks to driving, rather than the benefits of not driving. It highlights other work, though sparsely studied, showing increases in alcohol and drug use, STD’s, and poorer grades among young drivers compared to non-drivers.

Transition teens



9. Ward A, Weiss H. Mobility management for prevented, reduced, or delayed driving in teenagers (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD009438. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009438. November, 2011.

This is the protocol for a review. Our objective is to assess the effects of soft-policy behavioural interventions that focus on prevented, delayed or reduced driving (outside of GDL effects, and non-teen targeted organisational travel plans) on driving, auto occupancy, crashes and motor vehicle injury among teens.

10. Weston Kisa Marie. What Helps and What Hinders the Independent Mobility of Non-Driving Teens. Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The University of Texas at Austin. May, 2005.

Using in-depth interviews combined with a travel diary specifically developed for the thirteen-, fourteen-, and fifteen-year-old cohort, this research seeks to understand the decline in independent travel and what facilitates and prevents young teens from traveling independently. The travel diary was administered to 31 young teens in the Austin, Texas area and those respondents subsequently were interviewed to interpret and expand upon the diary information.

11. Ward AL, Gendall P, McGee R, Freeman C, Cameron C. 2016. Testing the waters on the South Island: Insights from a pilot study. NZ Sociology, in peer review.

This article reported on field methods used to test the feasibility of the content and administration of an on-line survey measuring associations between transport and well-being among older teenagers. We conducted an on-line pilot survey with a sample of n = 55 teenagers, using two delivery methods, ‘in class’ and ‘at home’. Built into both surveys were components that allowed for assessment of survey viability in terms of respondent orientation and engagement, question understanding, survey process and resource management. Pilot study results effectively advised the large-scale main survey to follow. Response rate was 82%, and was higher among those completing the survey during class compared to those completing it at home, and higher among females, indicating matters to address during the main survey. Survey questions were identified that were not operating as intended, and were amended. Respondent orientation should be an over-riding principle of survey strategies. “Practising” field research, such as piloting a survey prior to larger and costly studies, is an essential approach to ensuring good science and to avoid missed opportunities and ensure the collection of quality data. The full article can be found here – Testing the waters – full article

II. Transport Demand Management (TDM)

1, Graham-Rowe E., Skippon, S., Gardner, B., and Abraham, C. 2011, ―Can we reduce car use and if so, how? A review of available evidence. Transportation Research A, volume 45, number 5, pp. 401-418.

A systematic search was conducted.  77 intervention evaluations were examined, including measures of car-use reduction. Evaluations of interventions varied widely in the methods they employed and the outcomes measures they reported.  Overall, the evidence base was found to be weak. Only 12 of the 77 evaluations were judged to be methodologically strong, and only half of these found that the intervention being evaluated reduced car use. A number of intervention approaches were identified as potentially effective but, given the small number of methodologically strong studies, it is difficult to draw robust conclusions from current evidence.

2. Bamberg S, Fujii S, Friman M, Gärling T. Behaviour theory and soft transport policy measures. Transport Policy. 2011;18(1):228-235.

Describes soft policy measures, and presents a framework to clarify how both hard and soft policy measures impact car use reduction. This paper is important because it illustrates the multiple and overlapping factors that ultimately affect travel behaviour – essentially, it demonstrates the complexity of the task we are undertaking.

3. Fujii S, Taniguchi A. Determinants of the effectiveness of travel feedback programs–a review of communicative mobility management measures for changing travel behaviour in Japan. Transport Policy. 2006;13(5):339-348.

This paper reviews the literature on travel feedback programs (TFPs) and gauges their effectiveness, making this an excellent background resource. A must-read if you are fairly new to this topic.

4. Garling T, Bamberg S, Friman M, Fujii S, Richer J. Implementation of Soft Transport Policy Measures to Reduce Private Car Use in Urban Areas 2009.

After reviewing soft transport policy measures in several countries, this paper ties together why these policies work and the psychological determinants of car use. This paper is a combination of information from papers # 1 and #13 listed here.

5. Hyllenius, P, Smidfelt, L. Rosqvist et al. MaxSumo: Guidance on how to plan, monitor and evaluate mobility projects. Trivector Traffic (Sweden), ILS (Germany) and Edinburgh Napier University – ENU (Scotland). August, 2009.

A European model. Very important to us as it may serve as a step-by-step guide to grant writing and eventual project development and evaluation.

6. Litman T, Fitzroy S. Safe Travels; Evaluating mobility management traffic safety impacts: Victoria Transport Policy Institute and Fitzroy and Associates; 2010:  Accessed May 3, 2010.

This resource offers intervention and program ideas, and safety impacts of various MM strategies. A Canadian model.

7. Noxon Associates Limited. Transportation Demand Management for Canadian Communities: A Guide to Understanding, Planning and Delivering TDM Programs. March, 2011.

This resource is a Canadian version of resource #8. Will be of tremendous use to us as we plan and develop our specific interventions.

8. Richter J, Friman M, Garling T. Review of evaluations of soft transport policy measures. Transportation: Theory and Application. 2010;2(1):5-18.

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of soft transport policy measures implemented in 8 countries on 4 continents. Most involved household surveys and dissemination of educational information. It is interesting to note the methodological differences between some countries – for example, the larger-scale European and Australian programs included strong involvement of consulting companies, while the smaller-scale Japanese experiments were conducted by the transport researchers themselves; all showed similar reductions in car trips.

9. Richter J, Friman M, Garling T. Soft transport policy measures 2 (research needs): Karlstad University;2009:32.

Part 2 of the paper above, focusing on research needs.

III. Sustainable Transport, Health and Road Safety

1. Lisa Hopkinson. Institute for Public Policy Research. The War on Motoring: Myth or reality?.

This paper sets out the costs of motoring both to individual drivers and to the public purse, compar ed to the cost of living and the costs of alter native transport modes. It considers whether there are justifiable reasons for increased taxes on motoring.

2. Eugene M.G. Milne. School of Medicine & Health, University of Durham. A Public Health Perspective on Transport Policy Priorities. Journal of Transport Geography 21 (2012) 62–69.

This paper briefly considers the history of public health delivery in England, its transition from local government to NHS leadership and back again, and the consequences of that shift in terms of transport policy as a determinant of health and wellbeing.

3. Roger L Mackett and Belinda Brown, Centre for Transport Studies, University College London. Transport, Physical Activity and Health:Present knowledge and the way ahead

This report contains a review of the literature in the field of transport and physical activity. The purpose of the project which led to this review was to bring together experts from the fields of transport and physical activity, and complementary fields, to share knowledge and exchange ideas through a series of workshops, to examine the evidence of the role of transport in influencing levels of physical activity and hence its possible contribution to the solution of the health problems caused by the decline in physical activity.

4. Cairney P. Austroads Research Report: The road safety consequences of changing travel modes. Sydney, Australia, 2010.

This report from Australia sets out to describe and understand modal shift in New Zealand and Australia that may be due to rising fuel costs, and how these modal shifts may affect current programs already in place. Very important background information.

5. May M, Tranter P, Warn J. Progressing road safety through deep change and transformational leadership. Journal of Transport Geography 19 (2011) 1423–1430.

This is a recent and important paper from an experienced Australian team that outlines key policy themes emerging from their  research on a wholistic approach to road safety (see below). Two overarching themes include the importance of leadership for policy change and implementation, and addressing the more transformative aspects of intervening in a system. Examples of deep change discussed include the much wider application of mobility management/TDM, a strong shift to active travel and public transport, and a reconsideration of how time is structured in society, as with the adoption of ‘‘Slow Cities’’ principles.

6. May M, Tranter P, Warn J. Toward a Holistic Framework for Road Safety. University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy. Australia. Feb. 2010

Increasingly in recent years, research and public policy has been pointing to the need for a paradigm shift in the way we deal with road safety. Professor Don Aitkin, Chairman of the NRMA-ACT Road Safety Trust, has emphasised the need for a cultural change in relation to how people consider speed and the use of motor vehicles, in the same way that cultural shifts have occurred in relation to smoking and the issue of AIDS. This research project sought to address the way in which road safety is perceived by the wider community and policymakers, and how it can be reframed using a holistic approach.

7. May M, Tranter P, Warn J. Climate change, peak oil and road safety: finding synergisms to challenge the dominance of speed. Paper presented at: Australasian Transport Research Forum 2010; Canberra, Australia.

This review article provides foundational perspectives on the need to integrate sustainable transport approaches, specifically travel demand management (TDM), with road safety policy and practice. They point out that the multiple health, environmental, economic, transport and community liveability benefits of slower, active travel modes are very well established and make the case for TDM strategies being important for crash risk reduction by reducing per capita vehicle travel and exposure. “Forward-thinking political leaders are needed to overcome obstacles in the way of sustainable visions, as well as an aware and politically active citizenry demanding better options to confront climate change and peak oil.”

8. Newman P, Kenworthy J. ‘Peak car use’: understanding the demise of automobile dependence. Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice. Perth, Western Australia: Curtin University 2010.

This paper is important because it brings up many questions that may impact our research – if peak car use is happening, will it make it easier to achieve the goals of AMHC? Could it be that if left alone, teenagers will simply stop getting their licenses because of the peak car use phenomenon and not because of our efforts? An easy read, the authors break down 6 reasons why peak car use is occurring, and how it may naturally lead to a decrease in car dependence. Should help to spark some good discussions in our group as to how we should approach our future interventions.

9. Fishman E., Garrard J., Ker I., Litman T., 2011. Health, transport and environmental impacts of walking and cycling in Queensland: Research and Review, Stage One Report. Prepared by CATALYST for Health Promotion Queensland.

A comprehensive economic assessment of the benefits of active transport, commissioned by the Queensland Government.

10. Mindell JS, Watkins SJ, Cohen JM (Eds). Health on the Move 2. Policies for health promoting transport. Stockport: Transport and Health Study Group, 2011.

The policy statement of The Transport and Health Study Group. Health on the Move 2 is a comprehensive account of what would constitute a healthy transport system. The report  blends evidence, opinion from experts in their field as well as creativity. It is not only an educational tool and a series of recommendations for policy-makers. A license is requested for full use.

The transition to less car intense societies has already begun among young people. We aim to develop tools that will help accelerate this already initiated trend and we expect the market to beat a path to our door if we have an appealing and effective product.

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